Introduction of RMA
Since the ancient time revolution in military affairs have already happens starting from the use of foot soldiers into horsemen, the use of arrows and stones into gunpowder based weapons and the application of mobile warfare as the modern cavalry, because of the evolving nature of war and the advancement of technology that makes ancient strategy obsolete, it is a must to differentiate between pre- industrial age RMA and Modern RMA. This article will emphasize more on the modern RMA. Before we talked about the applications of modern RMA in one’s country we first should understand what RMA is all about and what can be considered as RMA. According to Andrew Marshall a major change in the nature of warfare that are happens by the ground-breaking application of new technologies joined with the dramatic changes in military doctrine, operational and organizational concept, essentially alters the nature and conduct of military operations. There are many debates regarding of what are the things that can be considered as an application of RMA, but many believes that the area of focus of modern RMA are as follows:
• Revolution in Military Technology such as Weapons technology (UAV, Robotics & Mechanical Weapon, Nanotechnology, Bio-technology), Information Technology ( Intelligence, Surveillance & Reconnaissance, Command, Control, Communications and Intelligence Processing)
• Revolution in the Military Doctrine such the changing from division centric mindset in Joint Operation idea, changes in the use of armed forces from the conventional warfare of mass armies against masses armies into the use of unconventional warfare which emphasize the small special operation group. Network- Centric chain of command to utilize joint operation and precision forces.
The United Kingdom’s RMA
The United Kingdom has applied the idea of modern revolutionary in military far before other military prominent state does.
First World War Era
After the introduction of the Maxim gun as the first machine gun in the world, the face of warfare has changed. During the First World War the Allied are faced with the new appearance of warfare the trench war, combined with the Maxim gun, the trench make all the previous centuries tactics obsolete, even the renown British cavalry cannot penetrate the barrage of the new technology. To counter this Lt Walter Wilson and William Triton come up with the idea of using the armored vehicles that able to resist small arms fire and passed through the barbed wired trenches of the enemy that gave birth to Mk I the first combat purposed Tank in the world which proven able to change the course of the war and help establish the idea of mobile warfare in the future.
Second World War Era
After the introduction of radar system during the 1930s both allied and axis power in Europe uses it, but the allied forces mainly the United Kingdom are the first one to establish a fully integrated net-grid of radar in the outer rim of their coastline with the French. The United Kingdom has implemented the idea of small special operation group during the Second World War which is known by the name of SAS or Special Air Service. The SAS are the first Special Operation Group in the world and have since then become the text book guideline for every special operation group around the world. Not like conventional soldiers the SAS work in a small numbers and are parachuted behind enemy lines to take vital places. Not only had the SAS the United Kingdom also introduced the technology to counter the Germans deadly sea mine called “Degaussing”, and to block the Germans radar during night bombing raid called “window”. The British Air Marshall Arthur Harris better known as Bomber Harris also introduce the idea of what we know today as carpet bombing which rather than bomb a specific target the air forces drop bomb on the entire area.
Cold War Era
During the cold war era the British are mostly pre-occupied by the large colony that they have and the ever increasing use of their special operation group. After the introduction of the long-range reconnaissance aircraft, the idea of intelligence, information and reconnaissance gathering are more emphasize since the long-range reconnaissance aircraft give the ability for the military to monitor the boots on the ground very closely. The development of the United Kingdom’s weapons technology such as Tanks and the WMD which are mainly the U.K Trident Program which develop the British long-range tactical nuclear program. When the development of laser guided missile are founded during the end of the cold war, the idea of carpet bombing are revolutionize by what we know as precision bombing or JDAM (Joint Direct Attack Munitions) to attack specific target and minimize collateral damage. Like the United States JSOC, the United Kingdom also introduce its own joint special operation command known as UKSF under the direction of the Ministry of Defense to simplify cross branch joint operation.
Post-Cold War Era
Not like the United States which are very advance in their modern weapon technology such as UAV, the British up until know are still leasing such things, though the United Kingdom’s have recently signed multi-million dollar contract to develop a drone fighter in the near future. The United Kingdom also has introduced their FIST project or the Future Integrated Soldier Technology which are still in development. The FIST are meant to increase the Command and Control, Lethality, Mobility, Survivability and Sustainability.
Those are the known RMA of the United Kingdom’s so far. With the ever developing nature of warfare the revolution in military affairs will always be seen in every military of every country in the world